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PROCEEDINGS OF THE GENERAL MEETINGS FOR SCIENTIFIC BUSINESS

OF THH

ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY

OF LONDON

FOR THE YEAR

1896.

PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY, AND SOLD AT THEIR HOUSE IN HANOVER-SQUARE LONDON:

MESSRS. LONGMANS, GREEN, AND OO, PATERNOSTER ROW.

) VF CR Ae

LIST

OF THE

COUNCIL AND OFFICERS

OF THE

ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON.

De. Joun Anverson, F.R.S., Vice-President,

Wittian = T. Branrorp, Esq., E.RS., Vice-President.

Groraze A. Bourencer, Esq., E.R.S.

Tur Rr. Hon. Grorar Denman,

Hersert Dever, Esq., F.LS.

Cuartes Drummonn, Esq., Trea- surer.

Gen. Toe How. Ferrtpsna, K.C.B.

F. DuCanz Gopman, Esq., F.R.S., Vice-President.

Lr.-Cot, H. H. Gopwin-Avsten, FE.R.S., Vice-President.

Sir Percy

1896.

COUNCIL. (Elected April 29, 1896.) . H. Frower, K.C.B., LL.D., D.C.L., Sc.D., F.R.S., President.

Dr. Epwarp Hawitron, Vice- President,

Proressor Grorar B, Howes.

Lr.-Cot. Leonarp H., Irsy.

Srr Huex Low, G.C.M.G.

Dr. St. Georar Mivart, F.R.S., Vice-President.

Prorressok ALFRED F.R.S.

Sir THomas Patne.

E. Lort Parcuirs, Esq.

Howarp Saunpers, Esq.

Partie Lurtry Scrater, Esq., M.A.,Ph.D., F.RS., Secretary.

Tue Lorn Watsinenam, F.R.S.

Newton,

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS.

P. L. Scrater, Esq., M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., Secretary. Frank EH. Bepparp, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., Prosector. Mr. A. D. Bartrerr, Superintendent of the Gardens. Mr. F. H. Warernovse, Librarian.

Mr. Joun Barrow, Accowntant.

Mr. W. J. Wittiams, Chief Clerk,

LIST

OF THE

CONTRIBUTORS,

With References to the several Articles contributed by each. ®

Page

Awnpruaws, C. W., F.G.S., F.Z.8., Assistant in the British Museum (Natural History).

On a Skull of Orycteropus gaudryi, Forsyth Major, from

Samos yiasiaje Sore disaby crepe Helayayorerai ah ae watateiseore car MAN

Avstun, #. E., Assistant in the British Museum (Natural History). =a Notes on a Recent Zoological Expedition on the Lower

296

HAST ABOWG Pes, Lee eleh ee ai ered LaeES Usa ae Re caren cane ES 768

Barrert-Hamitron, G. E. H. See Hamitron, G. E. H. Barrart-,

Barrpert, A. D., Superintendent of the Society’s Gardens. Notes on the Breeding of the Surinam Water-Toad

(Pipa americana) in the Society’s Gardens:............ 595

iv Bateson, Wiut1aM, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S.

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, three Pigeons showing webbing between the toes

Buppanp, Frank E., M.A., F.R.S., Prosector to the Society.

On some Earthworms from the Sandwich Islands col- lected by Mr. R. L. Perkins ; with an Appendix on some new Species of Pericheta, &c.

CeCe

On the Oblique Septa (“‘ Diaphragm of Owen) in the Passerines and in some other Birds

soot ee etree ee eee tee

A Note upon Dissura episcopus, with Remarks upon the Classification of the Herodiones

.

A Contribution to the Knowledge of the Anatomy of Rhynchops

Pen Ce Ce eC Cama

ee aC eC ee Cn

On the Anatomy of a Grebe (chmophorus major), with Remarks upon the Classification of some of the Schizo- gnathous Birds

Contributions to the Anatomy of Picarian Birds.— Part II. A Note upon the Pterylosis of the Barbets and Toucans

CC Ce

Contributions to the Anatomy of Picarian Birds.— Part III. On some Points in the Anatomy of the King- fishers

eo eee eee eer eee er eres ee eter es essere sere seeene

Burripeson, Graf Hans von, C.M.Z.8.

Remarks on the Rules of Zoological Nomenclature....

Buriarson, Graf Hans von, C.M.Z.S., and Sronzmann, JBAN,

On the Ornithological Researches of M. Jean Kalinowski in Central Peru. (Plates XIII. & XIV.)

SeOnONOECEC ET Cnr EC CET)

Page

989

194

225

231

299

538

555

603

319

Vv

Brnewam, Lt.-Col. C. T., F.Z.8., F.E.S8.

A Contribution to the Knowledge of the Hymenopterous Fauna of Ceylon. (Plate XV.) ..........0. ccc eeee

Buanrorp, W. T., LL.D., F.B.S., F.Z.8., &c. Remarks on the Rules of Zoological N omenclature .... Exhibition of, and remarks upon, four heads of Ovis ammon from the North-west Altai, Central Asia, obtained by Major Cumberland ............. fer Oe OSES

Bovtrneur, GrorcEe Arpurt, F.R.S., F.Z.S.

Second Report on the Reptiles and Batrachians collected by Dr. A. Donaldson Smith during his Expedition to Lake Rudolf. (Plates VII. & VIII.) ................

On some little-known Batrachians from the Caucasus. (abia3 OGL 65 WOKING) 5500000006000 00008500000000

Remarks on the Dentition of Snakes and on the Evolu- tion of the Poison-fangs ...........2 cece cece cece eens

On the Occurrence of Schlegel’s Gavial (Lomistoma

schlegel) in the Malay Peninsula, with Remarks on the ©

Atlas and Axis of the Crocodilians .................. On a new Gecko from Penang. (Plate XXXVI.).... Descriptions of new Fishes from the Upper Shiré River,

British Central Africa, collected by Dr. Percy Rendall,

and presented to the British Museum by Sir Harry H.

Johnston, K.C.B. (Plate XLVII.) ............-+000- On the Lizards of the Genus Eremias, Section Boulen-

GG soncoceonogs a9cnooob os osnodbesoucoSEDbORSS

Browns, Epwarp T., B.A., F.Z8., Zoological Research Laboratory, University College, London.

On British Hydroids and Meduse. (Plates XVI. &

DOWILL)) caotoocc00000000) se0000 Riscdl Srepeuy cuantyemusrelaiere

Page

401

321

786

212

548

614

628 767

915

920

459

t vl

Burtur, Arraur G., Ph.D., F.LS., F.Z.S8., &., Senior Assistant Keeper of Zoology, Natural History Museum.

On a Collection of Butterflies obtained by Mr. Richard Crawshay in Nyasa-land, between the months of January eml /\joutl ISO, Cais) WI) sccococauconvccbcc0000

On the Butterflies obtained in Arabia and Somaliland by Capt. Chas. G. Nurse and Col. J. W. Yerbury in 1894 andels9 5a (PlatepX)| aeons or een rac en eee aes

On two Collections of Lepidoptera made by Mr. R. Crawshay in Nyasaland. (Plates XLI. & XLII) ......

On a Collection of Lepidoptera from Nyasa-land pre-

Page

108

242

817

sented to the Museum by Sir Harry Johnston, K.C.B., -

and collected by Mr. J. B. Yule. (Plate XLIII.)...... CampBripen, Frupuriox O. Pickarp, B.A.

On the Theraphoside of the Lower Amazons: being an Account of the new Genera and Species of this Group of Spiders discovered during the Expedition of the Steam- ship ‘Faraday’ up the River Amazons. (Plates XXXIII.— 9,9. GS DEIN ae AMR RO Mn ae oto OR See oe oe CES

Camprinas, Rev. O. Pickard, M.A., F.BS., &c.

On some new and little-known Spiders (Araneidea). (PlatesEIT ee hte rk, eet ee

Crawsnay, Riowanrp.

Remarks upon the Gnu of Nyasa-land ............

CunnineuaM, Rosert O., M.D., F.LS., F.G.S., C.M.Z.S., Professor of Natural History, Queen’s College, Belfast.

On the Occurrence of a Pair of Supernumerary Bones

in the Skull of a Lemur, and on a Peculiarity in the Skull of a young Orang

Ce Ce eC

851

716

1006

617

vii Doxirvus, ADRIEN.

On West-Indian Terrestrial Isopod Crustaceans...... 388

Drussmr, H. E., F.Z.S., &e.

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a specimen of Pallas’s Willow-Warbler shot at Cley-next-the-Sea, Norfolk .... 856

Darvon, Hamitron H., F.Z.8., F'.E.S.

Further Contributions to the Knowledge of the Bornean Lycenide, (Plates XXIX.-XKXIL) .............--- 650

Duzo1s, Dr. AupHonseE, Conservator of the Royal Museum of Natural History, Brussels, Belgium.

Description d’un nouveau Couroucou africain ........ 999

Duruam, Miss M. Enrru.

Notes on the Mode of Feeding of the Egg-eating Snake (Dasypeltis scabra). (Plate XXXII.) ..........-..--- 715

Epwanrps, Janus, I'.1.8,, and Exwes, Il. J., F.L.8., 1.2.8.

Notice of 1 Memoir containing a Revision of the European and Asiatic Butterflies of the Family Hesperide. 609

Etwss, Hunry Joun, F.LS., F.Z.8.

Remarks on the Rules of Zoological Nomenclature.... 320

Etwzs, Henry Joun, F.LS., F.Z.S., and Epwanrps, JAMzs, F.E.S. Notice of a Memoir containing a Revision of the European and Asiatic Butterflies of the Family Hespernde. 609

Friower, Stantay Smyra, 5th Fusiliers.

Notes on a Collection of Reptiles and Batrachians made in the Malay Peninsula in 1895-96; with a List of ° the Species recorded from that Region. (Plates XLIV.— D.GI\Vl) adccaacsqodgocdsnogocvgu vedo oodEdoo0 0c 856

Vili

Fiownr, Sir Witt1am Howry, K.C.B., LL.D., F.B.S., &c., President of the Society.

_ Remarks on the Rules of Zoological Nomenclature ....

Forsus, Hnyry Oaa, LL.D., F.Z.8.

Remarks on the Rules of Zoological Nomenclature ....

Fowrrr, G. Hervert, B.A., Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Zoology, University College, London.

Contributions to our Knowledge of the Plankton of the Faeroe Channel.—No. ¥. (Plate L.)

wee ee we ee tere ee

Gapow, Dr. Hans, F.Z.S.

Remarks on Bone-caves in Estremadura, explored in INStoL iro tenons Mier rcanere a riceeoena a radia iow en trodia Ooi Borin

Gopman, F. DuCann, F.R.S., and Satvin, Osperr, M.A., E.R.S.

On the Butterflies of St. Vincent, Grenada, and the adjoining Islands of the West Indies

CeCe CC CC i Cy

Greeory, J. W., D.Sc., F.G.S., Assistant in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.).

On Lysechinus, a new Genus of Fossil Echinoderms from the Tyrolese Trias. (Plate LI.)

ee ee ww eee eee sere

On the Classification of the Palwozoic Echinoderms of ‘the Group Ophiuroidea

CR eC OY

Ginruer, Aubert C. L. G., M.A., M.D., F.R.S., &e.

‘Report on a Collection of Fishes made by Dr. A. Donaldson Smith during his Expedition to Lake Rudolf. (Plate IX.)

Cee iC i Cr CC ic, iC i i i array

Page

319

322

991

306

513

1000

1028

ix Hamizroy, G. E. H. Barrerr-, F.Z.8.

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, remains of the Norway Lemming (Myodes lemmus) from Portugal ............ On a Variation in the Pattern of the Teeth of a specimen of the Common Field Vole ................

On the Existence in Europe of Two Geographical Races, or Subspecies, of the Common Field Vole ............

Hameyson, G. F., B.A., &e., and Wausinewam, Lord, M.A., LL.D., F.B.S., F.Z.S.

On Moths collected at Aden and in Somaliland. (lateexny ye cteeiciavac sete ie avers pOdDODOvaGUdODODS

Hansmn, Dr. H. J. (Copenhagen).

On the Development and the Species of the Crustaceans of the Genus Sergestes ...... cece cet e ce ee sete eevee

Harrert, Henst.

Remarks on the Rules of Zoological Nomenclature....

Hitt, Lronarp, M.B.

Remarks on some Experiments on supposed cases of the Inheritance of Acquired Characters ..................

Hoxprve, R. E.

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, an Aniler of the Cir- cassian Red Deer, and a pair of Antlers of the Malayan Sambur abnormally developed ..................000-

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, the head of a three- horned Fallow Deer and a pair of Roebuck’s horns

Houtand, W.J., Ph.D., F.Z.8., F.E.S., &c., Chancellor of the- Western University of Pennsylvania.

A Preliminary Revision and Synonymic Catalogue of the Hesperiide of Africa and the adjacent . Islands, with Descriptions of some apparently new Species. (Plates.I.-V.) .......- sistaninslass erecelet ens yaeanenscnins

Page

304

598

599

257

936

319

785

618

855

x

Hoyt, Wittiam Evans, M.A., F.R.S.E.

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, some Photographs of a Snake in the act of swallowing a Mouse ............

Jacony, Martin, I'.E.S,

Remarks on the System of Coloration and Punctuation in the Beetles of the Genus Calligrapha ..............

Kirsy, F. W., F.LS., F.E.S, Remarks on the Rules of Zoological Nomenclature. .

On some Dragonflies obtained by Mr. and Mrs. Lort Phillips in Somali-land ............ 5 cess eeee ce eee

Langester, Prof. E. Ray, M.A., LL.D., F.B.S., &e.

Remarks on the Rules of Zoological Nomenclature. .

Lirrieron, The Hon. H. 8.

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a life-sized model of the Australian Lung-fish (Ceratodus forstert) ..............

LyprxKer, RicHanp, B.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., F.L.S., F.Z.8. Additional Note on the Sea-Otter.................. On an apparently New Deer from North China, in the

Menagerie of the Duke of Bedford at Woburn Abbey. (Plates) XUV IE. & XE.) oe ee ee ee lee ccc

Masor, C. I. Forsytu, C.M.Z.8.

On the General Results of a Zoological Expedition to Madagascar in 1894-96 ............ obdcopoac0000000

Mrrcuert, P. Coanmurs, M.A., F.Z.S. On the Intestinal Tract of Birds ............000: 60 A Contribution to the Anatomy of the Hoatzin (Qpis- CLOCNIDUD CHEERS) Go0600000000000000000000000000 66 Remarks on a supposed case of ‘lelegony shown by a Fox-terrier puppy ........+0+.0s- Vo caooo0d00000 9000

Page

547

224

322

521

320

786

235

930

971

136

785

xi

Mivarz, Sr. Guores, Ph.D., M.D., F.R.S., &e. °

On the Hyoid Bones of Nestor meridionalis and Nanodes CASO 0.00 009.00000000000000n0000000000000n0 aa0000

Neumann, Oscar.

Description of a new Species of Antelope from Fast INE GodobsodooarspoconcododocadotnaddeoncoRdon

Nawesiein, Miss Marion I., B.Sc. Observations on the Metallic Colours of the Trochilide

and the Nectarinitde. (Plates XI. & XII.)............

Newton, Atrrep, M.A., F.R.S., I'.Z.S., Professor of Zoology

and Comparative Anatomy in the University of Cam-

bridge.

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, the type specimen of Heterorhynchus olivaceus .. 0... 6c cece eee eee ees

Nortu, Atrrup J.,C.M.Z.8., Ornithologist to the Australian Museum, Sydney.

On the Habits of a Cuckoo in the Gilbert Islands ....

Parsons, F. G., F.R.C.S., F.Z.8., F.L.8., Lecturer on Com- parative Anatomy at St. Thomas’s Hospital.

The Myology of Rodents.—Part IJ. An Account of the Myology of the Myomorpha, together with a Comparison of the Muscles of the various Suborders of Rodents

On the Anatomy of Petrogale xanthopus, compared with that of other Kangaroos .............. oadcd00ndode

Puass, ALFRED EH.

On the Antelopes of the Aures and Eastern Algerian SAN oocgdgoans0000b00a 0000 000d DODD G0G0GO0000C .

Page

36

192

283

990

934 °

159

683

xii Satvin, Ossrrt, M.A., F.R.S8., and Gopman, F. DuCanz,

F.RS.

On the Butterflies of St. Vincent, Grenada, and the adjoining Islands of the West Indies ................

Souavs, WILLIAM, F.Z.8.

On Walker’s American Types of Lepidoptera in the Oxford University Museum ..............00 0. cere

Sonarur, Purir Lurney, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., Secretary to the Society.

Report on the Additions to the Society’s Menagerie in Dk dle) Geoovoopgecsoocc 00 cccGGu000000d000 Report on the Additions to the Society’s Menagerie in damn IBD ooccococasnsbd000000c0n0000d 00000006 Report on the Additions to the Society’s Menagerie in Theyraeray WEG goo0ccnnc0c0co000doene0nosooas ONS Remarks on the Divergencies between the Rules for naming Animals” of the German Zoological Society and the Stricklandian Code of Nomenclature ..............

Remarks upon the prospectus of Das Tierreich Remarks on the appointment of an International Committee on Zoological Nomenclature ....:......--. Report on the Additions to the Society’s Menagerie in Miedn WII “codacovcddaccdosaongd0s0g00900a0u00C Exhibition of, and remarks upon, some specimens from Nyasaland, sent home by Sir H. H. Johnston, K.O.B. Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a pair of Horns of the so-called Antilope triangularis........ ..:+sseeeeee Report on the Additions to the Society’s Menagerie in April 1896 .....0-. cee cere eee tenet eee ee etna es

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a Daguerreotype Portrait of what was believed to have been the first Gorilla that was ever brought alive to Europe..........

Pago °

513

634

303

306 400

401

505

506

506

547

xiii

Report on the Additions to the Society's Menagerie in May 1896

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a skin of Cercopithecus stairst from Mombasa

Ce ie ee ee ey

Exhibition of some Water-colour Drawings of African Antelopes, executed by Mr. H. Caldwell

weet twee ee eee

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a drawing of the Gnu

of Nyasaland. (Plate XXVIII.) ...........0.0 e000, :

Report on the Additions to the Society’s Menagerie in June, July, August, September, and October 1896....

Remarks on some of the principal Animals recently noticed in the Zoological Gardens of Antwerp, Cologne, Diisseldorf, Hanover, Amsterdam, The Hague, and Rotterdam. (Plate XXXVII.)

SC Ck i Cea a rer er arr)

Report on the Additions to the Society’s Menagerie in November 1896

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, two Volumes of original Water-colour Drawings by Wolf and Waterhouse Hawkins, from the Knowsley Library

CeCe eC rt ar rar

Snap, Dr. Davin, F.RB.S., F.Z.S.

Remarks on the Rules of Zoological Nomenclature....

SHanpp, Eminry Mary.

List of Lepidoptera collected in Somali-land by Mrs. E. Lort Phillips

seem ew weet we tee te ee nee ee etre ete seces

List of Lepidoptera obtained by Dr. A. Donaldson Smith during his recent Expedition to Lake Rudolf ....

Sumurpokrn, C. Davis, F.Z.S.

Explanation of the Plan adopted for preparing an ‘Index Generum et Specierum Animalium

Page .

608

609

609

616

780

783

981

981

321

523

530

610

XIV

Page SronzMann, JHAN,and Buriupscn, Graf Haws von, C.M.Z.8. On the Ornithological Researches of M. Jean Kalinowski in Central Peru. (Plates XIII. & XIV.) ............ 322 Trenrmetur, W. B., F.Z.S. Exhibition of some drawings of two young King- Penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) ©... 0.6... cece eee 1 Exhibition of, and remarks upon, an actinograph of a “it owered mar LArtrid Pera ti-tcieriakicreoiererciceiiae 991 Tuomas, OLDFIELD, I'.Z.8., Natural History Museum. On the Mammals of Nyasa-land: fourth Notice. (Plates XXXVIIT. & XXXTX.) .................... 788 On the Genera of Rodents: an Attempt to bring up to Date the current Arrangement of the Order .......... 1012 Tuomson, ARTHUR, Head-Keeper of the Society’s Menagerie. Report on the Insect-house for 1895 .............. 240 WatstnaHam, Lord, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., F.Z.S., and Hampson, G. F., B.A., &e. On Moths collected at Aden and in Somaliland. QED AG) cobs sg ooodocobbopoopsodoo oon KDDDOObeo~ 257 Wurraker, Joszru §., F.Z.S. On the Gazelles of Tunisia ...............0.5.00- 815

Winton, W. EL. vz, F.Z.8. On some Mammals from Ecuador. (Plates XIX. & XX.) 507

On a new Rodent of the Genus Lophuromys from British East Africa, (Plate XXVII.)................ 607

On Collections of Rodents made by Mr. J. ffolliott Darling in Mashunaland, and Mr, F. C. Selous in Matabeleland, with short Field-Notes by the Collectors. GUD 2M) sooohoouansouuuscogoun udaegosscagouean 798

xV

Page Woopwanrp, A. Smiru, F.Z.8. On some Extinct Fishes of the Teleostean Family Gonorhynchide. (Plate XVIII.) ...... ........00.. 500

Woonwarp, M. F., Demonstrator of Zoology, Royal College of Science, London.

Contributions to the Study of Mammalian Dentition.—

Part II. On the Teeth of certain Insectivora. (Plates XXIII-XXVI.)

LIST OF PLATES.

1896. ' Plate Page 1. Il. Il, -African Hesperiidee ...........0.. cee cee eee ee 2 IV. v.J VI. New Lepidoptora from Nyasn-land ...... Boos bo0008 108 WAN PA gaia area iin s esersvsise craps cusses ol nieke ceeyte apostle } 219 WiIAgamaliionous manners race oreer cc ct UX. Synodontisismrthi . 000. ..ccssenssestsceee sss sees 217 X. Lepidoptera from Arabia and Somaliland .......... 243 ee Metallic colours of Trochilida and Nectariniide .... 283 XII. Dubusia stictocephala ........ cece ec cn cen esnnes ! 399 XIV. Tyranniscus frontalis 20.0.6... cece eee eee eee XV. Ceylonese Hymenoptera.............2.sereneavees 401 aii British, Madusssuysapinds een 7 Oe 5 ean neal 459 XVIII. Extinct Gonorhynchid Fishes .................... 500 XIX. Pudua mephistophiles 00.0.0... ccc cece cece cues, t XX. MIchthyomys séderstromt ........... 0.0 cee evens ui

XXI. Fig. 1. Rana camerant; Fig. 2. Pelodytes caucasicus, XXII. Fig. 1. Salamandra caucasica; Fig. 2. Molge ain XXIi.

XXV. Development of the Teeth in the Insectivora ..... ».. 557 XXVI. KXVIL. Lophuromys ansorget .........0 ccc ec e cee c ev ceees 607 XXVIII. Connocheées taurinus johnstont.........0c.eceeaces 616 XXIX. XXX.) Bornean Lyconide.................00005 aooodcod 650 XXXI. XXXID. Dasypeltis scabra...... 0... cect cece etn nceees 715 XXXIII. XXXIV, { Nem Theraphoside from the Lower Amazons ...... 716 XXXV.

Proo. Zoor. Soo.—1896. 6

XViil

Page Mimetozoon flowert (... ccc cece cece ee eer ceeeees 767 Haliaetus brantchit..... 0.0. cece cence eee nena 784 Papto prwinosus oss cveeccccecevnccccseccceaaes 788

Raphiceros sharpet ..c..cseveevscccccerceeees A Fig. 1. Georychus darlingi; Fig. 2. Acomys seloust .. 798 New Lepidoptera from Nyasa-land. (Collected by Ike, One 74) panc0 09 o0000nb000000000000000C 817 New Lepidoptera from Nyasa-land. (Collected by Wb; (OFAPENCI A) goo0c0dc0000000500000000000000 New Lepidoptera from Nyasa-land, (Collected by Rib; MANE) odoluclclbonboeogosd0o00N S000 000000000 851 Malay Reptiles and Batrachians. Fig. 1. Gonatodes penangensis; Fig. 2. Rhacophorus leucomystax ;

Fig. 3. Bufo melanostictus .......0ceeeeeceaee 856 Malay Batrachians. Fig. 1. Rana macrodon ; Fig. 2.

R. erythrea; Vig. 3. R. labialis................ f Malay Batrachians. Rana luctuosa .............. J IRD GUADINTD ooco00gd0e0.e ope DoDDDDOODDONN 915 Deer from North China (in Summer pelage) ...... 980 Deer from North China (in Winter pelage) ..-..... Plankton of the Faeroe Channel.................. 991 Lysechinus and Tiarechinus.....-....eeccevencens 1000

New or little-known Spiders ...............00. .- 1006

LIST OF WOODCUTS.

1896.

Page Gorgyra abure, 3, Head and nouration of ..........6...2 2500 aol Gastrocheta meza, Neuration and palpi of ...............e.0e 00s 387 Teinorhinus watsont, 3, Neuration of ......... 0.0 cee eee eee eee 40 Rhabdomantis galatia, Neuration of. .......... 00sec eee eee eee 44 Semalea pulvina, Neuration of ....... 0... c see e eevee teen e eens 65 Andronymus philander, Neuration of ........... eee ee cence eee: 81 Choristoneura apicalis, Neuration of..........++.0000+ arate ate 83 Gama galua, Antenne: and palpi of........... 0. cer eee cece eee 84 Cenides dacela, Neuration of.........-... 0c cece eee e et tet ee eene 86 Artitropa erinnys, 5, Neuration of ............. cece eee ete aes 92 Acallopistes holocausta, §, Head and neuration of................ 96 Alligator mississiprensis, Intestinal tract Of ............+0see ee eee 137

Argus giganteus, Intestinal tract of, from a chick after incubation for Um, CEES. Soooondocboo ppcooeg boon bgondodgoanaD0oonD0NC 188 Casuarius, Intestinal tract Of 6.2.0... eee ee ce tee eens 140 Struthio camelus, Intestinal tract Of............ 00. se ee eee ee ees 141 Colymbus septentrionalis, Intestinal tract of .............- toe tk 142 Eudyptes chrysocome, Intestinal tract of ...........0..0+ sence ee 142 Fulmarus glacialis, Intestinal tract of ........... 0... eee e eee e ee 143 Platalea leucorodia, Intestinal tract of ............. 000. ee eee ees 144 Ciconia nigra, Intestinal tract of ......... 6. eee eee eee 145 Chauna chavaria, Intestine of ......... 0. cece ee eee tee eee eee 146 Cygnus atratus, Intestinal tract of ............ cece eee eee 147 Haliaétus albicilla, Intestinal tract of ........... cece esse ee eee 148 Crex pratensis, Intestinal tract of .............-.-. sees eee ees 149 Cariama cristata, Intestinal tract of............... eee eee eee 150 Numenius arquata, Intestinal tract of ................e eee eee ees 151 Scolopax rusticola, Intestinal tract of ............. 0. essence eeee 161 Larus marinus, Intestinal tract of....... ......0005 sara bieaktne vial OS Pterocles bicinctus, Intestinal tract of ............000055 oodnOviod 1563 Columba livia, Intestinal tract of 2.0.6.0... cee eee tee eee , 158 Corythaix chlorochlamys, Intestinal tract of.......... dgunonecd te 164 Ara ararauna, Intestinal tract Of. .... 66.6. cece eee eee eee 155 Bubo maximus, Intestinal tract of ..........ese ces eeeeeseeeeee 156

Rhytidoceros plicatus, Intestinal tract of .........0..2eeceeeeeees 157

Page

Colius capensis, Intestinal tract of ........ cece eee eee e eee 157 Parus major, Totestinal tract of 1.0.0... cece eee ee eee ee 158 Vole, Masticatory muscles of,.............0 cece eect eee tenes 160 Hamster’s masseter, Superficial dissection of ..........0..+20.005 161 Hamster’s masseter, Deep dissection of ...........-+0. sees sees 162 Heteromys, Masseter of ......... 00. c eect eee e eee e ee e ee neee 162 Bathyergus, Face-muscles of .........6. 0.0 cee cece eee eee eee 163 Rhizomys, Scalene muscles of .......... 60. eee cece eee eee 166 Rhizomys, Shoulder-muscles of............ 0 - eee eee eee ee eee 168 Heteromys, Pouch-muscles of ..........-+ 602s eee eee eee ees 174, 175 Hamster, Neck-muscles of............. 0. ceeeeee sete eee ene eee 176 Pericheta perkinst, Spermiducal gland of .............-++.+--- 200 Pericheta insule, Oviducal pore of ...... 0. ccc eect teen eee 206 SRT ULE oo ob Hu GhaooG on FOOD OHODC DOOD OG G~OoDG00N. 210 Clavius smithii, Teeth Of 1.0... cece cece ene n nee 219 Synodontis geledensis ..... 6.06 cece cece ence tee ee tnt ene 220 Synodontis schal ..... 0. ccc cece nce eee eben teen eens 221

Duck, Diagrammatic transverse section through the thorax of a.... 227 Crow, Diagrammatic transverse section through the thorax of a.... 227 Rook, Abnormal and thoracic viscera of, displayed by removal of

abdominal muscles) sjarieliacl\ieetlele-telsiorsieteleleysiekoteretas stenosis 229 Dissura episcopus, Syrink Of 1... 0... cece e eee eee ees 232 Abdimia sphenorhyncha, Syvinx of «0... .. 0. eee eee ee cere 233 Leptoptilus, Diagram of the syrinx of .......-...-. 0... e ee eee 234 Sea-Otter in walking posture.........0.... eee ees e eee renee eee 235 Nestor meridionalis, Hyoid of ........... 0c cece ee tee eee eee eee 237 Lathamus discolor, Hyoid of... .. 0... 0c cece cece e ene e ee ee 239 Orycteropus gaudryi, Skull of 61.1... eevee eee eee ee eee ees 297 Rhynchops, Muscles of the patagium of ........-.-0.+..-... 008s 300 Larus argentatus, Patagial tendons of..........-++-. sees eee ees 301 Rhynchops, Syvink Of 6.0... cece eee nee eens 3802

Armadillo tenuipunctatus, Upper and underside of cephalon and first two segments of pereion, and of fifth segment of pleon, pleotelson,

THONOE, Gi ondonesoosoneo0onGgous0doH0opDaD00000000 were. 889 Armadillo depressus, ditto 6.0.66. eee ete ee 390 Armadillo dumorum, Gitto... 6... cece eee eeee 391 Armadillo cinctas, ditto .. 0.0.0... cette eee cette teeter cees 892 Armadillo grenadensis, dittO . 6.6... cece cece tence ete tenes 893 Armadillo silvarum, itto ... 6. cic cence ee eee eens 894 Armadillo zigzag, ditto... 1... eee ee eet ete n ene 895 Armadillo perlatus, ditto . 0... 6... cee e ee eee eee renee es 395 Armadillo viticola, ditto 2... cece ete ee teetteet ee aee 396 Mesarmadillo modestus, QittO oo 26... cece cee ee tee teens 397 Mesarmadillo americanus, dittO 1.0... cece eect ee tee 398 Mesarmadillo reflexus, ditto ...... 0.6 c eee eee eee .. 399 Haplarmadillo monocellatus, ditto... . 6.6.66 v eee eee eee eee, 400 Gorilla, Head of female ........ 0... eee e cece ete te eee e ee eee 505

Pudua humilis, Side and palatal views of the skull of ....,....... 510

XXi

Page Pudua mephistophiles, Side and palatal views of the skullof .,...: 510 Aichmophorus, Syvinx Of 1.0... 0c cece even ence cence een e anaes 541 Tachybaptes, Syrink Of ......... eee ee cere ee Doauveene as desioondn 541 Synthliborhamphus antiquus, Tensores patagii of ............005% 544 Lunda cirrhata, Tensores patagii of ......... 060 ees e tee eens 545 Ceratorhina monocerata, Tensores patagii of ............2s..0ee 545 Ceratorhina monocerata, Syrink Of ........ 60sec e cece eens 546 Lomvta trotle, Syrink of... 0.0... eee eee eects ... 546 Pelodytes caucasicus, Skeleton of, from a sciagraph, upper and lower WEL coogovoodooapoodoogoddaDoDtaneoDO Doo UOHOCOURd O00 552 Megalema asiatica, Feather-tracts of ....:..-. 0. cece ee neces 556 Diagram of the tooth-succession in a polyphyodont reptile ........ 583 Diagram illustrating the relation of a molar tooth-germ to the dental TET iON at ere eRE OST ORES ACL AY CECE Te crc ON HERG IC OREM Och can 5838 Surinam Water-Toads in copuld ......... 0. cece eee eet ete 595 Surinam Water-Toad, after deposition of eggs ..............5055 596 Microtus agrestis, First upper molars of: diagram of typical and DOOM 5 sonc0c0cccg0900000000000000000000000000 seeeee 598 Halcyon rufa, Tendons of tensor patagii brevis of.............+.. 605 Ceryle alcyon, Tendons of tensor patagii brevis of......... ...... 605 Sauropatis albicilla, Tendons of tensor patagii brevis of .......... 605 Abnormal horns of Wild Goat from the Caucasus................ 618 Opisthocomus cristatus, Intestinal convolutions of ................ 619 Opisthocomus cristatus, Dissection of hyoidean muscles of ........ 622 Opisthocomus cristatus, Thigh-muscles of ...............0es0ees 626 Opisthocomus cristatus, Leg-muscles of,...... dobdnosucdoonseodas 626 Tomistoma, Atlas and axis Of ..........eeee cette neces ee eenes 630 Metriorhynchus, Atlas and axis Of ......... ee essences cere eeees 633 Petrogale, Skull of, showing os antiepilepticum.................. 685 IRR, ASAI OP oonocovon00000G000005000000000000000000000 686 Petrogale, First lumbar vertebra of, with hypapophysis .......... 687 Petrogale, Knee-joint of....... 22... cee eect ee cee te eect eees 690 Petrogale, Lower end of femur of, with ligaments attached........ 691 Petrogale, Ankle-joint of .......... cece cece e eee n wesc nate 692 Petrogale, Pectoral muscles of ....... Ye retss A Le ceVecievarerstaaceisle 696 Petrogale, Muscles of the sole of ..............++0008. Ov0000000 703 Petrogale, Cervical and brachial plexuses of ........ d00000b00000 707 Petrogale, Lumbo-sacral plexus of ...........6:esecueeveeeees . 711 Loder’s Gazelle, 2, Head of.......... 2... cece eee cence eee eee 781 Owisammon, Head! Of- 7.0. cc cnc dscns ee ses cleecin eco vne 787 Adax, Horns’ of, front View, ©. ....0.-:0-s+cec sree se eeverstee 811 Rhime,” Horns of......... 0... cece eee eee eet oboogeeoganN 814 ec Adami,” Hornsiof: esis oirec im sinicciels|ecitheieieielsiaysie nsec Senerstee 814 Fallow-deer, Head of Three-horned..........+.....secceseeeees 855 Chromis rend allt 0.60.0. cs seers sre nesses orvetsvuces +o. 916 Oreochromis shiranus .....0..0ccc cece eee et sa nseeetsereetaes 917 “Docimodus johnstont .......+0ccecevecveecvccsrsseceeccs see. 918

Corematodus shiranus ....cccccaccccvccucccecctevesvcccsscrecs 919

Page

Eremias mucronata ......... nada0ddonDG00000009000000000000 922 Eremias erythrosticta .......0....00008 po000G0000 g0000000 .. 924 Eremias smitht ...... hoon eDD 900D0000000000000000 Mea yatoloskelses 925 Eremias striata............4. Gavoasoobooone joono00Gd soo000a | GEMt E remias brennert .... ccc veer eevee Den AnD oOBE 00000006 000000 929 Lemur, Skull of, from above ..........0 sever ee eens nadogccod se

Orang, Skull of (left side) 1.0.0... eee eee ee eee Rte da 998 Orang, Skull of (right side) ...............5 Honsadheosanaaogs 998 Protaster sedgwicki, Forbes, Structure of the arm of ,........... 1031° Protaster biforis: a, outline of dise of arms; 6, pair of syngnaths., 1033 Protaster biforis, Diagram of the arm-structure of ............+- 1033 Bundenbachia, Arm-structure Of .......0.. reece cence eee es 1034 Lapworthura, Diagram of the arm-structure of, seen from ventral

BIDS opera stervepe rer ctape ie steress Gia ctokslense siotalctivarsnstatcresbaicucterersbataleretarte 1037

LIST OF NEW GENERIC TERMS.

Page Acallopistes (Lep.) ............ 95 Acidaliastis (Lep.) ........+.+ 267 Actius (Arachn.) .....0....50008 1000 Andronymus (Lep.) ..... a0 80 Anisaspoides (Arachn.).. 726 Aplectropus (Lep.) ..... 275 Archinola (Lep.) .............. 258 Artitropa (Lep.),.......ssecreeee 92 COsenides (Lep.) ......sc.0eseeeee 85 Corematodus (Pisces) Orinipus (Lep.) ........... meee Oycelyrius (Lep.)........+. pocno0ad 830 Dictenus (Lep.)........ Docimodus (Pisces) Eospondylus (Echinod.) ...... 1039 Friula (Arachn.) .........s0000 1008 Gamia (Lep.) ..csescccsecereseeee . 84 Gastrochsta (Lep.) .. 37 Gorgyra (Lep.) .........s000 we) ol

Haplarmadillo (Orustacea)... 399 \ Harmonicon (Arachn.)......... 765

1896.

: Page Lapworthura (Hchinod.) ...... 1037 Lysechinus (Echinod.) ......... 1001 Mantoides (Lop.) .sss....ec0ec0. 677 Melodeus (Arachn.) ..... se 768 Mimetozoon (Rept.) ........006 767 Miospondylus (Echinod.)...... 1039 Neodiplura (Arachn.) ..... see 755 Osphantes (Lep.) oos-.----+e wae 46 Parosmodes (Lep.) .......0008 . 45 Phthoropoa (Lep.) s.s.cc00. 282 Platylesches (Lep.) ......+0s00 72 Prosopalpus (Lep.) ......c0e0. 53 -Rhabdomantis (Lep.) ......... 44 Santaremia (Arachn.) ......... 746 Scotinochroa (Lep.) ........6+4 845 Semalea (Lep.) cco. 64 Sturtzura (Hchinod.) ........ . 1034

Teniura (Echinod.) ............ 1088

‘s Piva lots tan ; iets F

ea :

PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

GENERAL MEETINGS FOR SCIENTIFIC BUSINESS

OF THE

ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON.

January 14, 1896. Dr. W. T. Buanrorp, F.R.S., Vice-President, in the Chair.

The Secretary read the following report on the additions to the Society’s Menagerie during the month of December 1895 :—

The total number of registered additions to the Society’s Mena- gerie during the month of December was 98, of which 57 were by presentation, 1 by exchange, 34 by purchase, and 6 were received on deposit. The total number of departures during the same period, by death and removals, was 92.

Amongst these attention may be called to the two specimens of Forsten’s Lorikeet (Z'richoglossus forsteni), obtained by purchase. Of this scarce Parrot no examples have been previously received by the Society, and the species appears to be unrepresented in the British Museum (see Cat. Birds B. M. xx. p. 51).

Mr. W. B. Tegetmeier exhibited some drawings by Mr. Frohawk of two young King-Penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) in down plumage, living in the Society’s Gardens.

Proo. Zoot. Soo.—1896, No. I. 1

2 DR. W. J. HOLLAND ON THE AFRICAN [Jan. 14, The following papers were read :—

1. A Preliminary Revision and Synonymic Catalogue of the Hesperiide of Africa and the adjacent Islands, with Descriptions of some apparently new Species. By W. J. Hotzanp, Ph.D., F.Z.S., F.1LS., &e., Chancellor of the Western University of Pennsylvania.

[Received November 6, 1895.] (Plates 1.-V.)

Having been for a number of years past engaged in the diligent study of the Lepidoptera of Tropical Western Africa, and having been compelled in the prosecution of these studies to acquaint myself with the entire literature of the subject, it has occurred to me that it might facilitate the labours of others, who may be tempted to embark upon the same line of investigation, or who may already be involved in the tangled mazes of the subject, if I should at least attempt to bring together into one paper the scattered references to the various species. I have therefore begun a synonymic catalogue of the Diurnal Lepidoptera of the African Continent and the adjacent Islands, but am led by the advice of trusted friends to anticipate the publication of the more extended catalogue by the following paper, in which is contained a list of a very difficult group of Butterflies included in the fauna. Jam led the more readily to take this step in view of the results of the recent labours of Lieut. E. Y. Watson, who, ina paper recently published in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society upon the Classification of the Hesperiidw (P. Z. 8. 1893, p. 3), has laid solid foundations for the prosecution of systematic researches in the future. I have in the main followed the classification which he has suggested in his valuable paper, which, while confessedly incomplete, and leaving some things to be desired, is, nevertheless, one of the most notable contributions to the literature of the subject which has recently appeared. Based, as it is, upon an accurate and painstaking examination of the anatomical details and structural peculiarities of the various species represented in the collections of the British Museum and the magnificent collec- tion of Messrs. Godinan and Salvin, it may in the main be accepted as free from the blemishes which characterize much of the work done in this group by authors, who have relied almost wholly upon superficial resemblances. In the few cases in which I have departed from the classification of Lieut. Watson, it has been because I have been able to make more careful anatomical investi- gations than it was possible for him to do with the material at his command. <A private collector may do as he will with his own, and may bleach and dissect specimens, when it would be little less than a crime for the authorities of a Museum like that at South Kensington to allow such treatment to be bestowed upon the

p PZ.S5.1896. Plate L.

West, Newman chromo hth

Afrie an Fle speriudee

PZ.5.1896.Plate II

West,Nevanan chirome hth.

Atrican tle speridee

PZ.§ 1896 .Plate II.

West, Newrnan chromo hth

African Hespernde.

PZ.S 1826 Plate IV.

hth

West Newman chromo

24

African Hesperndaee.

PZS1896 Plate. V.

West,Nevanan chromo lith.

African He speriice.,

ogee Ne Nl

-

1896.} BUDTHRFLIBS OF THD FAMILY HESPERIIDS. 3

précious types of Hewitson and other great naturalists, who have placed their collections in the care of the institution.

In following up my labours I have been greatly aided by the possession of a large mass of well determined Indian material, which I have been accumulating for many years past, and particu- larly by the possession of the Knyvett collection, for which I am indebted to the generous kindness of Mr. Andrew Carnegie, my distinguished fellow-townsman, whose interest in all things relating to the advancement of science is well known. I have derived much assistance from the collections which I have received from Mr. William Doherty, the well-known naturalist explorer of the far East, and from the collections for which I am indebted to Mr. L. de Nicéville, of Calcutta, whose great work upon the Lepidoptera of India is a monument to his painstaking diligence and scientific acumen. I am no less indebted to Mr. Roland Trimen, the late learned Curator of the South-African Museum at Capetown, whose labours upon the fauna of extra-tropical Africa are classic, and who

‘with the most engaging kindness has presented me with authenti- cally determined specimens of most of the species named by him. It is much to be wished that all authors might acquire those habits of exact observation and clear description which are possessed by this Nestor among lpidopterists, whose diagnoses of the various species contained in his last work upon the Butterflies of South Africa are so exact ag almost to make the work of pictorial repre- sentation superfluous. Iam under very special obligations to the authorities of the British Natural History Museum not only for permission to freely study the collections in their possession, but for permission to have drawings made of the hitherto unpublished types of the late Mr. Hewitson and of Dr. Butler. | have to thank Dr. Karsch of the Berlin Museum, and Dr. Rogenhofer of the Imperial Museum at Vienna, for similar kindnesses. From Mons. Mabille of Paris I have received most distinguished courtesies, and I am indebted to him for the opportunity to ex- amine personally the types of many of his recently described species, and for the use of a number of copies of the unpublished figures of Ploetz. Ploetz made no collection of specimens during his lifetime, but contented himself with making drawings, not always very accurate, of the species which he described in the collection of others, or which he found figured in various works. These figures are in many cases our only safe clue to a knowledge of the species he named, for his descriptions are in many instances very unsatis- factory. I cannot fail in this connection to express my indebtedness to Lieut. Watson, who compared many of the species in my collection with the types in the British Museum, and assigned them to the respective genera to which they belong in his classi- fication, and to Dr. Butler and Mr. Herbert Druce for their generous assistance at all times freely given. Among American entomologists, I am especially indebted to Dr. S. H. Scudder of Cambridge, who, upon the oécasion of his last visit to Europe, did me the great favour of comparing aseries of drawings of fae species

1

4: DR, W. J. HOLLAND ON THB AFRICAN (Jan. 14,"

in my collection with the types in the Berlin Museum and in the Museums of Paris and London. But great as is the debt of gratitude I owe to these valued friends and colabourers, it is even exceeded by my obligations to Dr. Otto Staudinger of Dresden, who entrusted to the ocean all the types of African Hesperiidae and all the unnamed material in his vast collection, and freely sent them to me for purposes of study and comparison. For this act of great generosity I cannot sufficiently thank him.

In submitting the following pages to the attentive consideration of specialists, it is with a sense of the manifold defects which must in the lapse of time be found to be contained therein. With the exercise of the utmost care, and with all the help of the learned, errors are unavoidable. In all cases where doubt attaches in my mind to a generic reference, it is indicated. Absolute certainty in this respect is not easily attained in some cases. While two-thirds of the species accredited to the African fauna are represented in my own collection, in some cases by enormously large series of specimens, and I have seen in nature probably four-fifths of the species of the Hesperitde which have been described as coming from Africa, nevertheless in not a few cases I have been compelled to rely wholly upon illustrations and the suggestions of resemblance made by authors for an approximate location of the species. Yet, in spite of the defects which must of necessity exist in this work, F venture to express the confident belief that it will be found to mark a distinct advance in our knowledge of the subject.

RHOPALOCERA. ‘Fam. HESPERIID A. Subfam. HEsPrriin 2,

Sazanausa, Moore. (Hyda, Mab.; Eretis, Mab.; Sape, Mab.)